Law of Trusts in Ontario: The Creation of Joint Account Represents an Inter vivos Gift of the Right of Survivorship? – #52

This article intends to analyze how to determine the actual intention of the ageing parent who opens a joint bank account with his or her child in Ontario by summarizing the Supreme Court of Canada’s decision on Pecore v. Pecore, 2007 SCC 17. These types of joint accounts are used by many Canadians for a variety of purposes, including estate-planning and financial management. As joint bank accounts are widely used among the family members in Canada, the courts are often requested to determine the intention of the parent who opens the joint bank account in order to decide who has legal right for the balance remaining in the account at the date of death of the parent. The common question is whether the parent intended to make a gift of the beneficial interest in the accounts upon his or her death to the child who holds the joint account or whether the parent intended that this child holds the assets in the accounts in trust for the benefit of his or her estate to be distributed according to the will.

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L’affaire Specter Aviation c. Laprade : L’état de jurisprudence justifie la permission d’appeler d’un jugement concernant l’autonomie de la clause d’arbitrage – #51

Cet article vise à résumer un jugement récent rendu par l’honorable Monsieur le Juge Bachand de la Cour d’appel du Québec concernant l’autonomie de la clause d’arbitrage (Specter Aviation c. Laprade, 2021 QCCA 183).

Les faits pertinents

En avril 2012, M. Laprade, World Aircraft Leasing Inc. (ci-après « WAS ») et United Mining Supply (ci-après « UMS »)  signent « l’Avenant au protocole d’accord USM Aviation établi en avril 2012 ». M. Laprade et World Aircraft Leasing Inc. (ci-après « WAL ») assoient leur droit de propriété dans l’avion de type Beechcraft Super King Air 300 (ci-après « l’Avion Beechcraft 300 »). L’Avenant contient la clause suivante :

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Family Patrimony and Trusts in Quebec: Whether Family Residence Acquired by Trust is Included in Family Patrimony – #50

This post aims at summarizing the Supreme Court of Canada’s majority reasoning on Yared c. Karam, 2019 CSC 62.

Factual Background

In October 2011, Mr. K established a trust to protect their family’s assets for the benefits of his wife, Mrs. Y and their four children. The trustees are Mr. K and his mother. The initial beneficiaries were Mrs. Y and their four children. The trust conferred extensive powers of “Appointer” on Mr. K: 1) the power to appoint new beneficiaries, including himself; 2) the power to destitute any beneficiaries; and 3) the power to decide to which beneficiaries and in what proportion the revenues and capital of the trust would be paid.

In June 2012, the trust acquired a residence with funds transferred by the spouses. Then the family moved in the new residence. Mr. K stated that the house would serve both as the family residence and as an investment protected under the trust for the benefit of his children.

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L’évaluation de la perte de revenus futurs en matière de responsabilité civile : Le calcul au point d’incapacité est incompatible avec les méthodes approuvées par la jurisprudence à la suite de la trilogie de 1978 – #49

En matière de responsabilité civile, la victime a droit à des dommages-intérêts en réparation du préjudice futur lorsqu’il est certain et qu’il est susceptible d’être évalué (Art. 1607 et Art. 1611 C.c.Q.). Or, il est souvent difficile de quantifier la perte de revenus futurs subie par la victime. Il convient de rappeler que l’évaluation de la perte de revenus futurs doit être fonction de la preuve et non consister en un système basé sur une valeur définie par le pourcentage d’incapacité partielle permanente (Maison Simons inc. c. Lizotte2010 QCCA 2126). L’existence d’une incapacité partielle permanente ne se traduit pas nécessairement par une perte de capacité de gains futurs. Cet article vise à introduire brièvement l’évaluation de la perte de revenus futurs en matière de responsabilité civile. Il est important de noter que les faits suivants sont fictifs et ont été créés par l’auteur afin d’établir un contexte propice à l’analyse.

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lululemon v. ICP: The Standard of Reasonableness will Generally Best Serve to Preserve the Autonomy of the Forum Selected by the Parties and to Minimize Judicial Intervention – #48

The yoga practitioners must have heard of lululemon. Indeed, headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia, lululemon is the high-end yoga-focused chain featuring stylish athletic wear and accessories. It sells its products in retail stores and directly to consumers through their online platforms. Industrial Color Productions Inc. (“ICP”) is a professional media production company located across the USA. ICP provided professional media production services and photography for lululemon’s e-commerce platforms since October 2017. However, in May 2019, lululemon notified ICP that it intended to terminate the Agreement. Their contractual disputes were brought to the arbitral tribunal seated in Vancouver, Canada. In April 2020, the arbitrator rendered his award, requiring lululemon to pay to ICP, inter alia, an amount of US$1,081,967 and applicable interest as the damages for breach of contract. lululemon seeks to set aside this portion of the award before the Supreme Court of British Columbia as it claims that the arbitrator went beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration in making an award that ICP did not plead during the arbitral hearing (lululemon athletica canada inc. v Industrial Color Productions Inc., 2021 BCSC 15).

This court decision reminds us that the standard of reasonableness and not correctness will generally best serve to preserve the autonomy of the forum consensually selected by the parties and to minimize judicial intervention. It points out that although the Ontario courts applied standard of correctness on reviewing question of jurisdiction in The United Mexican States v. Burr, 2020 ONSC 2376 and Mexico v. Cargill, Incorporated, 2011 ONCA 622, a commercial dispute involving two private companies is “foundationally different than” an investment dispute between a state and foreign investors. In addition, Mr. Justice Funt noted that the parties’ expectations as to the completeness of the arbitrator’s reasons should be less than those of the parties engaged in the commercial litigation before the judicial tribunal.

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Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Award: Maritime Court of China Recognized and Enforced a Singaporean Award which Awarded Interest that the Party Did Not Claim – #47

Factual Background

On 14 September 2014, Emphor FZCO (“Emphor”) signs a shipbuilding contract (“Shipbuilding Contract”) with Guangdong Yuexin Ocean Engineering Co., Ltd. (“Yuexin”) for the purchase of a 60.6 meters anchor handling tug supply vessel. They agree that Yuexin should fulfil its delivery obligations on or before March 3, 2016 and that if Yuexin fails to fulfill its delivery obligations due to the force majeure, Emphor can terminate the contract after an excessively delayed delivery of over 210 calendar days. As a consequence, Yuexin should refund all payment for bookings and pay the interests at an annual rate of 6%.

On December 3, 2013, their Contract comes into effect.

On October 10, 2016, as Yuexin fails to fulfil its delivery obligations, Emphor notifies Yuexin that Emphor is going to terminate the contract. Moreover, Emphor also requests Yuexin to refund US$ 2,780,000 that Emphor has prepaid for the vessel and the interests to Emphor.

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Débats de juridictions : Les tribunaux québécois ont-ils compétence pour prononcer le divorce des parties qui se marient dans un autre pays ? – #46

Je travaille au sein d’un cabinet d’avocats qui se consacre au droit international de la famille depuis 1957. Notre équipe à Montréal a joué et continue de jouer un rôle important dans l’évolution du droit international privé impliquant diverses juridictions et, par extension, l’application des lois étrangères. Cet article vise à introduire brièvement l’application de l’article 3135 du Code civil du Québec en droit de la famille. Il est important de noter que les faits suivants sont fictifs et ont été créés par l’auteur afin d’établir un contexte pour l’analyse.

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疫情加速网上庭审时代来临,参与模拟仲裁庭炼就网上庭辩技能 — 记加拿大资深仲裁员Daniel Urbas和Julie Hopkins组织的模拟网上仲裁庭系列活动 – #45

从爆发到蔓延全球,新冠疫情已持续了将近一年。全球各地的法院,为了维护司法秩序,避免延期审理导致诉讼案件积压和司法不公,陆续开设互联网法院,又称云法院。另外,各大仲裁机构也开始设立并完善网上仲裁庭审规则。例如,将于2021年生效的《国际商会仲裁规则》第26条授予仲裁庭更大的权限,允许仲裁庭根据案件的有关事实和情况决定庭审形式。换言之,仲裁庭有权决定利用电视会议推进案件审理进程。可见,疫情加速了网上庭审时代的来临。古人云,祸兮福之所倚,福兮祸之所伏。笔者认为,网上庭审将在一定程度上提高纠纷解决的效率,降低纠纷解决律师的执业成本。然而,网上庭审也存在许多技术难题。

2020年4月至10月期间,笔者协助加拿大资深仲裁员Daniel Urbas律师和Julie Hopkins律师组织了模拟网上仲裁庭系列活动。这个系列活动旨在锻炼网上庭辩技能,了解参与网上庭审所需设备和注意事项,找寻将视讯软件(videoconference platforms)各项功能与法律执业传统技能融合的办法。该系列活动吸引了来自温哥华,多伦多,蒙特利尔,卡尔加里,渥太华,休斯顿,纽约,芝加哥,波士顿,华盛顿等资深仲裁员和律师参加。他们都是各自法域里的律界翘楚,他们都熟练掌握律师执业传统技能,如法律文书写作,庭审开庭陈词,结案陈词,盘问证人等。通过该系列活动,我也有幸与Daniel Urbas仲裁员和Julie Hopkins仲裁员一同,观摩,探讨,学习,锻炼网上庭辩技能。

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L’affaire Caron c. Triviom : La procédure de nomination d’arbitre prévue dans la clause d’arbitrage est contraire à l’ordre public et nulle, mais le reste de la clause d’arbitrage demeure valide – #44

Les faits pertinents (Caron c. 7834101 Canada inc. (Triviom à Charlemagne ), 2020 QCCS 2859)

En janvier 2015, dans l’affaire Saindon c. Triviom (Saindon c. 7834101 Canada Inc., 2015 QCCQ 682), la Cour du Québec rejette une demande d’exception déclinatoire de la défenderesse Triviom parce que la clause d’arbitrage en litige est rédigée à l’avantage de Triviom en ce sens qu’elle contrôle l’identité et la qualité des trois arbitres possibles à solutionner le conflit. La Cour du Québec conclut que la procédure de nomination de l’arbitre est nulle parce qu’elle est contraire à l’article 2641 C.c.Q.

Triviom ne porte pas cette décision de la Cour du Québec en appel.

Le 14 avril 2017, malgré la décision Saindon, Triviom et Caron concluent le Contrat préliminaire de vente de condominium qui inclut la même clause d’arbitrage. Ce contrat a pour objet la construction d’une unité de condominium, livrable en novembre 2017. La clause 5.10 se lit comme suit:

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3510395 Canada Inc. v. Canada: The First Major Judicial Interpretation of Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation – #43

In June 2020, the Federal Court of Appeal released its decision in 3510395 Canada Inc. v. Canada (Attorney General), 2020 FCA 103. The Federal Court of Appeal upheld the constitutionality of the Canada’s anti-spam legislation (CASL). The decision provides businesses in Canada with a degree of guidance on how to comply with CASL’s requirements on the commercial electronic messages (CEMs).

Factual Background

In 1998, the Appellant began its operations in Quebec. It offered approximately 300 professional training courses in areas such as effective use of social media and budget planning. E-mail marketing was the Appellant’s primary means of business development.

In 2014, An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act (“CASL”) came into force in Canada. The CASL provides regulations for the sending of commercial electronic messages (“CEM”) of the electronic commerce.

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