Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Award: Maritime Court of China Recognized and Enforced a Singaporean Award which Awarded Interest that the Party Did Not Claim – #47

Factual Background

On 14 September 2014, Emphor FZCO (“Emphor”) signs a shipbuilding contract (“Shipbuilding Contract”) with Guangdong Yuexin Ocean Engineering Co., Ltd. (“Yuexin”) for the purchase of a 60.6 meters anchor handling tug supply vessel. They agree that Yuexin should fulfil its delivery obligations on or before March 3, 2016 and that if Yuexin fails to fulfill its delivery obligations due to the force majeure, Emphor can terminate the contract after an excessively delayed delivery of over 210 calendar days. As a consequence, Yuexin should refund all payment for bookings and pay the interests at an annual rate of 6%.

On December 3, 2013, their Contract comes into effect.

On October 10, 2016, as Yuexin fails to fulfil its delivery obligations, Emphor notifies Yuexin that Emphor is going to terminate the contract. Moreover, Emphor also requests Yuexin to refund US$ 2,780,000 that Emphor has prepaid for the vessel and the interests to Emphor.

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Débats de juridictions : Les tribunaux québécois ont-ils compétence pour prononcer le divorce des parties qui se marient dans un autre pays ? – #46

Je travaille au sein d’un cabinet d’avocats qui se consacre au droit international de la famille depuis 1957. Notre équipe à Montréal a joué et continue de jouer un rôle important dans l’évolution du droit international privé impliquant diverses juridictions et, par extension, l’application des lois étrangères. Cet article vise à introduire brièvement l’application de l’article 3135 du Code civil du Québec en droit de la famille. Il est important de noter que les faits suivants sont fictifs et ont été créés par l’auteur afin d’établir un contexte pour l’analyse.

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疫情加速网上庭审时代来临,参与模拟仲裁庭炼就网上庭辩技能 — 记加拿大资深仲裁员Daniel Urbas和Julie Hopkins组织的模拟网上仲裁庭系列活动 – #45

从爆发到蔓延全球,新冠疫情已持续了将近一年。全球各地的法院,为了维护司法秩序,避免延期审理导致诉讼案件积压和司法不公,陆续开设互联网法院,又称云法院。另外,各大仲裁机构也开始设立并完善网上仲裁庭审规则。例如,将于2021年生效的《国际商会仲裁规则》第26条授予仲裁庭更大的权限,允许仲裁庭根据案件的有关事实和情况决定庭审形式。换言之,仲裁庭有权决定利用电视会议推进案件审理进程。可见,疫情加速了网上庭审时代的来临。古人云,祸兮福之所倚,福兮祸之所伏。笔者认为,网上庭审将在一定程度上提高纠纷解决的效率,降低纠纷解决律师的执业成本。然而,网上庭审也存在许多技术难题。

2020年4月至10月期间,笔者协助加拿大资深仲裁员Daniel Urbas律师和Julie Hopkins律师组织了模拟网上仲裁庭系列活动。这个系列活动旨在锻炼网上庭辩技能,了解参与网上庭审所需设备和注意事项,找寻将视讯软件(videoconference platforms)各项功能与法律执业传统技能融合的办法。该系列活动吸引了来自温哥华,多伦多,蒙特利尔,卡尔加里,渥太华,休斯顿,纽约,芝加哥,波士顿,华盛顿等资深仲裁员和律师参加。他们都是各自法域里的律界翘楚,他们都熟练掌握律师执业传统技能,如法律文书写作,庭审开庭陈词,结案陈词,盘问证人等。通过该系列活动,我也有幸与Daniel Urbas仲裁员和Julie Hopkins仲裁员一同,观摩,探讨,学习,锻炼网上庭辩技能。

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L’affaire Caron c. Triviom : La procédure de nomination d’arbitre prévue dans la clause d’arbitrage est contraire à l’ordre public et nulle, mais le reste de la clause d’arbitrage demeure valide – #44

Les faits pertinents (Caron c. 7834101 Canada inc. (Triviom à Charlemagne ), 2020 QCCS 2859)

En janvier 2015, dans l’affaire Saindon c. Triviom (Saindon c. 7834101 Canada Inc., 2015 QCCQ 682), la Cour du Québec rejette une demande d’exception déclinatoire de la défenderesse Triviom parce que la clause d’arbitrage en litige est rédigée à l’avantage de Triviom en ce sens qu’elle contrôle l’identité et la qualité des trois arbitres possibles à solutionner le conflit. La Cour du Québec conclut que la procédure de nomination de l’arbitre est nulle parce qu’elle est contraire à l’article 2641 C.c.Q.

Triviom ne porte pas cette décision de la Cour du Québec en appel.

Le 14 avril 2017, malgré la décision Saindon, Triviom et Caron concluent le Contrat préliminaire de vente de condominium qui inclut la même clause d’arbitrage. Ce contrat a pour objet la construction d’une unité de condominium, livrable en novembre 2017. La clause 5.10 se lit comme suit:

Continue reading “L’affaire Caron c. Triviom : La procédure de nomination d’arbitre prévue dans la clause d’arbitrage est contraire à l’ordre public et nulle, mais le reste de la clause d’arbitrage demeure valide – #44”

3510395 Canada Inc. v. Canada: The First Major Judicial Interpretation of Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation – #43

In June 2020, the Federal Court of Appeal released its decision in 3510395 Canada Inc. v. Canada (Attorney General), 2020 FCA 103. The Federal Court of Appeal upheld the constitutionality of the Canada’s anti-spam legislation (CASL). The decision provides businesses in Canada with a degree of guidance on how to comply with CASL’s requirements on the commercial electronic messages (CEMs).

Factual Background

In 1998, the Appellant began its operations in Quebec. It offered approximately 300 professional training courses in areas such as effective use of social media and budget planning. E-mail marketing was the Appellant’s primary means of business development.

In 2014, An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act (“CASL”) came into force in Canada. The CASL provides regulations for the sending of commercial electronic messages (“CEM”) of the electronic commerce.

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3510395 Canada Inc. v. Canada: The First Constitutional Challenge to the Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation – #42

Factual Background

In 1998, the appellant began its operations in Quebec. It offered approximately 300 professional training courses in areas such as effective use of social media and budget planning. E-mail marketing was the appellant’s primary means of business development.

In 2014, An Act to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy by regulating certain activities that discourage reliance on electronic means of carrying out commercial activities, and to amend the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act, the Competition Act, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the Telecommunications Act (“CASL”) came into force in Canada. The CASL provides regulations for the sending of commercial electronic messages (“CEM”)[1] of the electronic commerce.

Between July and September 2014, the appellant sent out 317 commercial electronic messages (“CEM”) to various recipients to promote its educational and training services. Most of the recipients are young individuals working in Quebec.

On March 5, 2015, following the investigation, the Appellant was issued a Notice of Violation (NOV) pursuant to section 22 of CASL. The NOV alleged that the appellant had not obtained recipients’ consent prior to sending the promotion emails in question, contrary to paragraph 6(1)(a) of CASL. Besides, the commercial electronic messages (“CEM”) did not contain a functioning “unsubscribe” link, contrary to paragraph 6(2)(c) of CASL. Consequently, the NOV imposed a $1,100,000 administrative monetary penalty (“AMP”) on the appellant.

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“The courts, and society in general, need to be vigilant to the abuse of the elderly and the vulnerable. ” – #41

While a large number of the so-called “baby-boomer” generation are becoming elderly and more reliant on third parties for their basic needs, we should be vigilant to the abuse of the elderly and the vulnerable in our daily life. A recent decision of Superior Court of Quebec drew our attention to the elder abuse issue. In this case, an elderly woman was financially abused and forced to be transferred to a residence out of her own community without her consent and without any prior notification. The Court found the Defendants had violated the elderly woman’s numerous Charter rights. This article intends to analyze the justification of the awards in moral damages and punitive damages in elder abuse matters. 

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Evaluate the worldwide damages in the epidemic of defective computer graphic cards in the international sales of goods disputes – #40

I have participated in the 18th CIETAC Cup Commercial Arbitration Moot Competition as an arbitrator last week on a videoconference platform named VooV Meeting. It has been my great honour and privilege to sit with the experienced arbitrators and lawyers from different jurisdictions during this event. And we are glad to see that the students in China are able to plead the CISG related matters fluently in English and to answer our questions directly and effectively during their deliberations (See my one-minute speech as the Arbitrator of CIETAC Cup).

As you may already know, this year, the Problem concerns the applicability of United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (“CISG”) on the purchase and license agreement on the viral sectors for the production of vaccines against respiratory diseases, such as COVID-19. In the Problem, Claimant only requires the arbitral tribunal to declare the existence of a breach of contract of the Respondent as Claimant is not yet in a position, to exactly identify the specific remedy required. Out of curiosity, I have read a recent decision of Superior Court of Quebec to learn how the Quebec courts evaluate the worldwide damages in the epidemic of defective computer graphic cards litigation.

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Quand le locateur poursuit le locataire pour loyers impayés depuis la pandémie liée à la COVID-19… – #39

La COVID-19 fait des ravages auprès de plusieurs petites entreprises, notamment dans le domaine de la restauration. Certains restaurants ont de la difficulté à payer leur loyer tandis que les propriétaires des lieux loués doivent néanmoins continuer à payer les dépenses afférentes à l’immeuble. En avril 2020, le gouvernement du Canada a mis en place un programme d’aide d’urgence pour le loyer commercial (le programme AUCLC), dont le but est de réduire de 75 % le loyer des petites entreprises canadiennes les plus touchées par la pandémie de COVID-19. L’adhésion à ce programme exige la collaboration du locateur.

La Cour du Québec et la Cour supérieure du Québec ont récemment rendu plusieurs jugements sur des demandes d’ordonnance de sauvegarde portant sur la réclamation des loyers du baux commerciaux (Voir Investissement immobiliers G. Lazzara inc. c. 9224-5455 Québec2020 QCCS 2176 9215-3956 Québec inc. c. 9378-9949 Québec inc.2020 QCCQ 2537 ; Investissements Complexe 2020 ltée c. Madame Bovary inc., 2020 QCCS 2500 etc.).

Cet article vise à analyser la question suivante: dans quelle situation le locateur a-t-il droit à une ordonnance de sauvegarde en fonction des critères élaborés par la jurisprudence ?

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The CISG Governs the Sale of Computer Graphic Cards Contract While the Quebec Law Determines the Weight to be Given to Evidence by the Court – #38

The China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC) is hosting the 18th CIETAC Cup Commercial Arbitration Moot Competition in November 2020. I am going to participate in this online arbitration competition as an arbitrator. This year, the Problem concerns the applicability of United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (“CISG”) on the purchase and license agreement on the viral sectors for the production of vaccines against respiratory diseases, such as COVID-19. Out of curiosity, I have read a recent decision of Superior Court of Quebec to learn how the Quebec courts use CISG and domestic laws to decide “whether or not to award damages and, if so, for what amount” in the disputes arising out of a sale contract of the computer graphic cards between the multinational companies. The Court notes that while the CISG governs the sale of computer graphic cards contract, the rules applicable to evidence in this case are in the Book Seven of the Civil Code of Quebec.

Key Facts

In early 1998, the Plaintiff purchased the Defendant’s graphic cards for new Kayak and Vectra personal computers. The worldwide Business Desktop Division (“BDD”) of the Plaintiff operates primarily in Grenoble, France.

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