Having determined that a court should resolve whether the arbitrator has jurisdiction over the dispute between Heller and Uber, the Supreme Court of Canada found that the Arbitration Clause of Uber’s Services Agreement is invalid. This Arbitration Clause is invalidated because it is considered unconscionable and detrimental to access to justice. Hence, this article discusses the unconscionability issue and the accessibility issue of the Arbitration Clause in Uber’s Services Agreement.Continue reading “Uber v Heller: The Arbitration Clause of Uber’s Services Agreement is Unenforceable and Invalid”
The Supreme Court of Canada released the judgement on Uber Technologies Inc. v. Heller, 2020 SCC 16 on June 26, 2020. In an 8-1 ruling, the Supreme Court found that the Court has jurisdiction on determining the issue of the arbitrator’s jurisdiction in this case and that the Arbitration Clause between Uber and Heller is invalid. This decision has raised arbitration lawyers’ concerns and discussions these days. The Canadian Journal of Commercial Arbitration and Arbitration Place has organized a Webinar entitled “Uber v. Heller: First Impression” on July 3 at 12PM to discuss on this judgement. Mr. Daniel Urbas has also published a case comment on this judgement (See Supreme Court – courts should not refer jurisdiction challenge to arbitrator if real prospect that challenge might never be resolved)
This article discusses the Supreme Court of Canada’s majority reasoning on whether the Court can decide the challenge of arbitrator’s jurisdiction on the validity of the Arbitration Clause.Continue reading “Uber v Heller: Only Superficial Review of the Documentary Evidence is Sufficient for the Court to Resolve the Issue of Arbitral Jurisdiction”
Bankruptcy and insolvency can trigger catastrophic consequences. Often, large claims of unsecured creditors are left unpaid (Para. 1 of Sun Indalex Finance v. United Steelworkers, 2013 SCC 6). The Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (“CCAA”) is one of the three principal insolvency statutes in Canada. The CCAA pursues an array of overarching remedial objectives. These legislative objectives include: “providing for timely, efficient and impartial resolution of a debtor’s insolvency; preserving and maximizing the value of a debtor’s assets; ensuring fair and equitable treatment of the claims against a debtor; protecting the public interest; and, in the context of a commercial insolvency, balancing the costs and benefits of restructuring or liquidating the company.” (Para. 40 of Callidus, 2020 SCC 10)Continue reading “The Supreme Court of Canada (7:0) allowed the appeal and reinstated the supervising judge’s order under the CCAA”
Questions of Mixed Fact and Law on Contractual Interpretation: A Preliminary Study of the Supreme Court of British Columbia’s Decision on Gormac Developments Ltd. v. Teal Cedar Products Ltd., 2020 BCSC 712 – WriteToLearn Evening Notes
The contractual interpretation is an exercise involving either a question of law or a question of mixed fact and law (para. 45 of Sattva). The questions of mixed fact and law involve aspects of law (para. 45 of Teal Cedarand para. 65 of Richmont Mines). And the Canadian courts may grant leave to appeal if the aspects of law in the contractual interpretation could be extricated from the factual matrix and if the questions of law have the degree of generality or a “great precedential value” (see para. 37 of Southamand Art. 31 (2) Arbitration Act, RSBC 1996, c55). A narrow scope for extricable questions of law is defined by the Canadian courts in order to keep consistent with the key policy objectives of consensual arbitration, namely efficiency and finality.Continue reading “Gormac v Teal Cedar: The Application of the Legal Test Results In Different Outcomes v. The Legal Test Has Been Altered in the course of its Application”
Le 11 mars 2020, l’Organisation mondiale de la santé a officiellement déclaré que la COVID-19 était désormais une pandémie mondiale.
Le 15 mars 2020, la juge en chef du Québec et le ministère de la Justice du Québec ont arrêté/ordonné de concert que les délais de prescription extinctive et de déchéance en matière civile étaient suspendus jusqu’à l’expiration de la période de la déclaration d’état d’urgence sanitaire.Continue reading “Construction, COVID-19 et Force Majeure au Québec”
The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated, and accelerated the transformation from in-person hearings to virtual hearings of the court proceedings. With travel bans and physical distancing policy in place, the in-person hearing is becoming the exception rather than the norm in 2020. While an increasing number of court hearings are conducted remotely in some jurisdictions, some litigants and lawyers still object to a videoconference examination because they maintain that it is more difficult to appreciate the credibility of witness, especially witness’ demeanour remotely. The opponents argue that the remote examination reduces the chemistry that may develop between the counsel and the witness and further, it reduces the solemnity of the court proceeding (para. 39 of Arconti v. Smith, 2020 ONSC 2782).Continue reading “Virtual Hearings: Appreciate the Credibility of Witness at Remote Examination – WriteToLearn Notes”
“The turning point in the lives of those who succeed, usually comes at the moment of some crisis, through which they are introduced to their ‘other selves’” – Napolean Hill
Q: During the hearing, can the participants turn on and off their microphones or their cameras randomly?
A: According to the arrangement of the tribunal, the participants could turn on and off their microphones in turns. For some hearings which involve more than 9 participants, the tribunal may consider to discuss with the participants to seek the agreement on turning off the non-speaking participants’ cameras in order to reduce the technical issue and to protect the tribunal’s concentration from unnecessary interruption. On the other hand, the tribunal assistant, the IT consultant and the court reporter may turn off their cameras with the consent of all parties during the hearing.Continue reading “Virtual/Remote Arbitration Hearings Part III Points for Attention during the Virtual Arbitration Hearings”
Q: How does the tribunal ensure that all the participants are familiar with the functions of the videoconferencing software?
A: Without a doubt, a great amount of time for preparation is required for virtual arbitral hearing.
First, the tribunal may make procedural orders, upon the agreement of the parties, on the following issues: (a) identifying which issues can be dealt with on “documents only” and which issues must be dealt with on virtual hearing; (b) issues of confidentiality for virtual hearing; (c) requirements of virtual caucus rooms for the tribunal members and each side in the case; (d) the minimum system specifications (such as document display, raise hand, mute, private chat functions etc.) and technical requirements for smooth connectivity, adequate visibility and lighting in each location; (e) the requirements of the equipment, such as computing devices, screens, webcams, headphones, microphones and internet capacity; (f) the preferred videoconferencing platform; (g) a list and the number of authorized participants and their time zones; (h) hearing procedure, especially the recording issue, the issue of witness and expert testimony (See Chandra v. CBC, 2015 ONSC 5385 and 9087-1195 Québec inc. (Développement Olicon) c. Syndicat de copropriété le Vénitien sur Rive, 2020 QCCS 1458); (i) the retainment of a single tribunal assistant or IT consultant to coach the participants on how to deal with the technical issues before and during the hearing; (j) the contingency measures to be implemented in case of technical failures; (k) timetable of the hearings; (l) how to make and deal with objections during the examination and cross-examination;Continue reading “Virtual/Remote Arbitration Hearings Part II – Pre-Hearing Preparation for the Virtual Arbitration Hearing”
“Grace is that turning point from feeling hopeless to becoming empowered.” – Deborah Brodie
COVID-19 is a public health crisis that is massively disrupting the pending dispute resolution proceedings and generating new disputes that may be more difficult to resolve due to the safety concerns and public health restrictions imposed by the governments. The arbitral institutions of different jurisdictions are taking practical measures to provide guidance and procedural tools to the parties, counsels and tribunals to mitigate the delays generated by the pandemic. It is acknowledged that the parties, counsels, tribunals and the institutions have shared common goal to make every effort to conduct the arbitration proceedings in a fair, expeditious and cost-effective manner. While the videoconference and the audioconference have been employed as a practical technological alternative in the resolution of trans-jurisdictional disputes for many years, more and more hearings for domestic disputes are being performed by videoconferencing these days due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is no doubt that some practitioners and disputants insist on in-person hearings and that the virtual hearing is not always the most appropriate alternative in some specific circumstances.Continue reading “Virtual/Remote Arbitration Hearings Part I – Definition and Application Scope of the Virtual Arbitration Hearing”
加拿大魁北克省有一部让人引以为豪的魁北克民法典。现在，中国也将拥有一部为了“保护民事主体的合法权益，调整民事关系，维护社会和经济秩序，适应中国特色社会主义发展需求，弘扬社会主义核心价值观”的民法典了！该民法典将于2021年1月1日开始守护陪伴每位中国公民的衣食住行，婚丧嫁娶，生产经营，生老病死。Continue reading “2020年5月28日，中国人大通过《中华人民共和国民法典》！中国从此正式进入“民法典时代”！The National People’s Congress of China adopted Civil Code on May 28, 2020.”